Table of Contents
Subjective Questions with Answers
Q1. What is national integration? Discuss in detail.
Members of any group of people are generally different from each other in many respects and at the same time, they have certain times in common. But for one reason or the other, they are inclined to forget their difference and strengthen their bonds for unity. When this happens, a nation is formed.
The concept of “Nationality” was first defined in distinct terms by the Muslim historiographer and sociologist “Ibn-e-Khaldun”. He gave nationality in the name of “Asabia”. He said that it was the sentiment of nationhood that forms the basis of civil life. The rise and fall of human groups generally depend on this sentiment. According to Laski nationality the feeling of nationhood “marks off those who share in it from the rest of mankind.
National integration occurs when the binding or cementing forces in a group of people are more power full than disintegrating forces. There are two types of forces involved in the make-up of a nation.
- Centripetal forces
- Centrifugal forces
These are the forces that attract the scattered part towards one centre and create a sense of unity among the members of a group are called centripetal forces. The centripetal forces are like a magnetic bar, put amid common pins.
The points of differences or clashes in a nation are called centrifugal forces.
These are dividing and disintegrating forces.
It can be concluded from the above discussion that the centrifugal force is present in every society. However, they can be integrated by some binding force, by some centripetal power. When centripetal forces will be more active than the centrifugal ones, only then the target of national integration can be achieved.
Q2. Signify the importance of national solidarity in an Islamic democratic state.
National solidarity means a feeling of nationhood, a feeling of love and precession towards one’s nation.
The people in this part of the region have their origins in Urdu, Bengali, Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi, Pashto and many other cultures. Islam is a binding force between these people. This factor, this centripetal force between these people. This factor, this centripetal force is so powerful so paramount that it has overcome all other centrifugal forces like race, colour, language, culture, geography, caste etc. Their vow is eternal religiously and irrevocable politically.
To strengthen their national solidarity, the people of Pakistan must forget their social, linguistic and geographical differences and stand united based on Islamic fraternity. They should know that they are Muslims and Pakistanis first and all other identities are secondary. Pakistan is like a big picture and all the centrifugal forces here are its colours. Removing any colour from the picture would mar the beauty of the picture as well as of the colour itself. So each colour should remain steadfast to its position as colour and shouldn’t try to take the place of the picture. Rather, it should enhance the beauty of the picture.
Q3. Enlist the obstacles interposed in the way of national integration and cohesion.
The term national integration implies a sense of beneficiation in various groups of the nation. Obstacles imposed in the way of national integration:
Following are the major obstacles interposed in Pakistan:
- Provincialism and parochialism
- Linguistic differences
- Racial differences
- Inequitable distribution of wealth
- Undemocratic governments
- Feudal system
- Ignorance of religious and moral values
- Negative role of media
- War culture
Pakistan has four provinces Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan; these provinces are the branches of one whole. But the bases of provincialism and parochialism in the inhabitants of these provinces cause national integrity to fail.
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. It is a source of national integration. But, unfortunately, there has been left some laxity in the implementation of Urdu as a national language. So linguistic biases become an obstacle in the way of national integration.
Racial difference and ethnic differences are also a major obstacle in the way of national integration.
Unequal distribution of wealth
Wealth should be divided equally into all the strata of society. Improper and unequal distribution of wealth causes an obstacle in the way of national Integration. Poverty, inequitable distribution of wealth, the difference between the living standards of the people of different areas of the country.
Some provide of undemocratic values, which creates discontentment among the deprived classes of the people is the major obstacle in the way of National Integrity.
Autocratic behaviour of bureaucracy hinders in the way of national integration. The behaviour of the bureaucracy is looked at by the people as the representative of some special classes and areas of the country.
The monarchs of feudalism to pamper national integration in the society because the emergence of national integration in the society is ill-treated to their monarchy.
Illiteracy makes people indulge in the trail of bases. They don’t calculate the significance of national integration.
Ignorance of Religious Values
Our religion has taught us to be integrated and united. But we have forgotten the lessons taught to us by our religion. This unawareness of the religious and moral values hinders in the way of “national integration”.
Negative Role of the Media
Media sometimes propagates the feelings of commutative mistrust and disgust. This is a serious blow on the face of national integrity.
War culture is the root cause of poverty and economic and cultural setback. War culture is the mother of all evils. It breeds national disintegration in society.
Q4. What sort of measures can be adopted for the promotion of national solidarity by way of education and opinion-forming?
Following educational and opinion-forming measure can be adopted to promote national integration in Pakistan.
- Spreading religious education
- A revival of the National spirit based on Two-Nation theory.
- Promotion of Islamic culture and Tradition
- Application of Media for Nation Building
- Promotion of Urdu
Spreading Religious Education
The major cause of national disintegration in our region is ignorance of religious education. If we want to promote national integrity in Pakistan, we should spread religious education all over the country.
The revival of the National Spirit Based on Two Nation Theory
Two Nation theories were centripetal for the Muslims of South Asia. Even today the revival of the national spirit based on Two-Nation theory can promote National integrity.
Promotion of Islamic Culture and Tradition
Islam is a binding force for the inhabitants of Pakistan. It guides people in a single direction. If we inculcate Islamic culture and tradition in our society, then the local customs, traditions, social, parochial and cast differences will automatically be eliminated.
Application of Media for Nation Building
Media often causes national disintegration. We should make proper use of media for national integration.
Promotion of Urdu
Linguistic differences are the major cause of national disintegration. To eliminate linguistic differences, we must promote Urdu in Pakistan for the sake of national integration. Urdu is the ‘lingua franca’. It can serve as a medium of communication between all parts of the country. It can eliminate the existing linguistic differences and can serve as the major source of national integration.
Q5. What type of administrative and political measures should be adopted for the promotion of national integration?
The following administrative and political measures can be adopted to promote national integration in Pakistan.
Administration with Responsible and Patriotic outlook
The federal administration is a national institution; under federal civil services officers belonging to one province are posted in other provinces. If these officers perform their duties with a real sense of service and consider themselves to be the servants of the people and not their masters or rulers, there will be no reason for the people of any province to complain that they were being subjected to alien rule. If this is not done certain parts of the country will suffer a sense of deprivation.
Restricting the provinces
Our country comprises of four provinces. These provinces have somewhat, different cultural-linguistic and ethnic characteristics. Such differences are common in all countries of the world; (for example India, our closest neighbour is a hundred times more heterogeneous than we are). But unfortunately, due to the conspiracies of the unpatriotic elements, these differences have become a challenge for national integration.
Bi-Cameral Legislature/ Powerful Upper House
A bicameral legislature was established for the first time under the 1973 constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The upper house was named Senate. Lower house or the National Assembly is the popularly elected house and represents the people of Pakistan. The upper house, Senate, is the house of Provinces. This is a step of utmost important necessary to dispel the sense of deprivation that our small provinces have.
Separation of Powers
In the federal form of government, powers are divided between the federal and the provincial government. For a strong federal system, separation of power between the central government and the federating units is an essential requirement. All four provinces expressed satisfaction regarding these safeguards. The only thing now required is the implementation of the constitutional clauses in letter and spirit.
Democratic System of Government
The democratic system creates a sense of responsibility and participation in the people. They start to love their country and live for it. Dictatorship, on the contrary, creates a sense of deprivation among the people; and they get alienated from the national and collective affairs. They develop enmity not only towards the rulers but also towards the province or the class to which the rulers belong. In this way, national integration is jeopardized. To prevent this state of affairs from happening we should try to establish a democratic system based on the principles of Islamic Ideology.