Table of Contents
Subjective Questions with Answers
Q1. What does role language play regarding cultural integration and the development of human relationship?
Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring closer to each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people. Language is a means of expressing our thoughts and emotions. Language draws a line of difference between Man and other creatures.
Culture is defined as the total of the higher achievements of group life, or the human products made by a particular group of people, living in a specific area at a particular period.
The role of language in Cultural Integration
Language is a medium of interaction it makes a social animal. Language is a mirror of our personality. A spoken word can win us either respect or disgrace. Of all human products language has paramount importance. Language is important for the cultural life of a nation of the following grounds:
- Language is a vehicle of expressing emotions.
- Language is a medium for acquiring knowledge.
- Language mirrors society.
- Language is the living history of culture.
- Language and the memory of the nation.
- The reciprocal relationship between culture and society.
- The role of Urdu in the cultural integration of the Muslims of India.
- The role of Urdu in the cultural integration of different ethnic groups of Pakistan.
Language is a vehicle of expressing emotions.
It has trough language that people express their feelings, emotions and aspirations and preserve their cultural heritage for their future generations.
Language is a medium of acquiring knowledge
All knowledge is acquired and imparted through language. The language spoken in society bears a very strong impact of the body of knowledge it comes in contact with.
Language mirrors society
Words, syntax idioms, phrasal verbs and other instruments of speech used by speakers of language reflect the society of its origin. So, we can say there is a close affinity between language and culture. Both bear the marks of each other. So, language works as a centripetal force for a nation.
Language is the living history of culture
Language of a society reflects the entire body of the experiences of society. It records the total experiences of society. Also, it transfers these experiences to the coming generations. Language, therefore, is the living history of a nation. In the way, language integrates the culture of a nation.
Language and the memory of the nation
Allama Muhammad Iqbal calls history ‘the memory of nation’, this memory is kept alive through the medium of language.
The reciprocal relationship between culture and society
Physical and social sciences affect language in turn affects the academic life of the society. Languages of the vibrant and civilized societies are rich in academic tradition and vice versa are uncivilized societies.
The role of Urdu in the cultural integration of the Muslims of India
In United India, Urdu was the symbol of Muslim identity. When the Hindus alienated themselves from Urdu considering it the language of the Muslims, cracks between the two nations started to appear. Thus, Urdu served as a symbol of the Muslim culture and proved a death blow to the magnificent culture based on Hindu Muslim Unity.
The role of Urdu in the cultural integration of different ethnic groups of Pakistan
Pakistani culture is a heterogeneous culture. Here abode people of different ethnic groups. Urdu is serving as a centripetal force to keep the people of Pakistan united, had not Urdu been our centripetal force, the spirit of provincialism had engendered Pakistan’s solidarity.
The above discussion shows how language works for the cultural integration of a nation. Keeping this point in view, the Quaid-e-Azam said in clear words that the national language of Pakistan would be Urdu. He said:
“Let me make it clear that the national language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Without one state language, no nation can remain tied up solidly together.”
Q2. Why Urdu can be the only national language of Pakistan? Enlist salient features of Urdu Language.
Characteristics Features of Urdu
Only Urdu can be the national language of Pakistan. No other language deserves this status, following are the reasons:
- Urdu has a very close resemblance with all the regional languages of Pakistan. Many words used in these languages are common and all these languages are written in the same script.
- Urdu is the lingua franca, it is spoken and understood by people living in all areas of Pakistan.
- Urdu is the symbol of national unity; it is not the language of any particular region or a specific group of people. It is a common national heritage.
- Urdu is a vast and beautiful language. It has assimilated many beautiful words from other languages.
- Urdu has the potential of being developed into a perfect language of science and technology as well as the language of official use.
- In the history of South-East Asia, Islam Pakistan and Urdu have been so closely related to each other that none of these can be supposed to flourish and prosper independently. Urdu has a very rich treasure of Islamic literature. We cannot achieve the ideological objectives of our state unless we give Urdu the status it deserves.
Q3. Enlist the obstacles interposed in the way of national integration and cohesion.
The term national integration implies a sense of beneficiation in various groups of the nation. Obstacles imposed in the way of national integration:
Following are the major obstacles interposed in Pakistan:
- Provincialism and parochialism
- Linguistic differences
- Racial differences
- Inequitable distribution of wealth
- Undemocratic governments
- Feudal system
- Ignorance of religious and moral values
- Negative role of media
- War culture
Pakistan has four provinces Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan; these provinces are the branches of one whole. But the bases of provincialism and parochialism in the inhabitants of these provinces cause national integrity to fail.
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. It is a source of national integration. But, unfortunately, there has been left some laxity in the implementation of Urdu as a national language. So linguistic biases become an obstacle in the way of national integration.
Racial differences and ethnic differences are also a major obstacle in the way of national integration
Unequal distribution of wealth
Wealth should be divided equally into all the strata of society. Improper and unequal distribution of wealth causes an obstacle in the way of national Integration. Poverty, inequitable distribution of wealth, the difference between the living standards of the people of different areas of the country.
Some provide of undemocratic value, which creates discontentment among the deprived classes of the people is the major obstacle in the way of National Integrity.
Autocratic behaviour of bureaucracy hinders in the way of national integration. The behaviour of the bureaucracy is looking at by the people as the representative of some special classes and areas of the country.
The monarchs of feudalism to pamper national integration in the society because the emergence of national integration in the society is ill-treated to their monarchy.
Illiteracy makes people indulge in a trail of bases. They don’t calculate the significance of national integration.
Ignorance of Religious Values
Our religion has taught us to be integrated and united. But we have forgotten the lessons taught to us by our religion. This unawareness of the religious and moral values hinders in the way of national integration.
Negative Role of the Media:
Media sometimes propagates the feelings of commutative mistrust and disgust. This is a serious blow on the face of national integrity.
War culture is the root cause of poverty and economic and cultural setback. War culture is the mother of all evils. It breeds national disintegration in society.
Q4. Write a note on the Punjabi language.
Punjabi is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian subfamily.
Origin of Punjabi
Like other North Indian languages, it is derived from Sanskrit and is therefore Indo-European.
History of Punjabi
We do not know exactly about the history of Punjabi language. Many experts trace its origin to the ancient Dravidians of Harappa civilization 2500 BC. Others trace its origin to the Mahmud of Ghazna which is not earlier than 1000 AD. Generally, Baba Farid-ud-Din is known as the first poet of Punjabi.
Dialects of Punjabi
Many sources subdivide the Punjabi language into
- Western Punjabi- Lehnda or Lahnda and
- Eastern Punjabi
- Siraki and Hindko are mutually intelligible with Punjabi and are often considered dialects.
Punjabi in the world
Mainly Punjabi is spoken in Pakistan and India. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers such a Britain, the United States and especially Canada, where it is the fifth most commonly used language. Punjabi is the sacred language of the Sikhs, in which the religious literature is written. It is the usual language of Bhangra music, which has recently gained wide popularity in South Asia and abroad.
Punjabi Culture and Partition of India
Punjabi culture a split between India and Pakistan during the partition of 1947. As such, Punjabi language and culture tend to be uniting factors despite national and religious affiliations.
Forms of Punjabi literature.
Following are the major forms of Punjabi literature:
Q5. What do you know about the script and literary works of Sindhi language?
Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. John Beames writes about Sindhi. It is a rough language, having thorny paths of its own, but there hangs about it, to my mind, somewhat of the charm of wildflowers. There is a flavour of wheaten flour and a reek of cottage smoke about Punjabi, and Sindhi, which is infinitely more natural and captivating than anything which the hide-bound Pandit-ridden languages of the eastern part of India can show.
The Origin of Sindhi Language
Sindhi is related to “Indo Arean” languages. Its base Is “Sanskrit” or “Prakrat”. After the coming of Arabs, a great number of Arabic, Persian and Turkish words were added to Sindhi.
History of Sindhi Language
It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the people of Mohenjo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language. Travellers like Al Beruni have told us about the original script of the language. ‘Chach Nama’ being an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century, as it is today.
Dialects of Sindhi
There are seven styles of the Sindhi language:
|No||Dialect||Area of the Dialect|
|1||Siro||North of Sindh|
Sindhi in the world
- Sindhi is spoken by approximately 17 million people in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
- Sindh is also a recognizes official language of India, where it is spoken by approximately 1.2 million people
- Sindhi Script
- Sindhi has its script which is similar to Arabic but with a lot of extra accents and phonetic.
- There are 52 characters in the Sindhi language.
Sindhi was a very popular literary language back in the 14th-18th century. This is when Sufis like Shah Abdul Latif and numerous others narrated their theosophical poetry depicting the relationship of humans and God.
Sindhi in Educational Institutions
The Sindhi language is taught as the first language in Schools of South-East Pakistan except in large metropolis like Karachi. The Sindhi language has a vast vocabulary which made it a favourite of many writers and a lot of literature & poetry was written.
First Translation of the Holy Quran
Quran was first time translated into Sindhi in rhymatic format this was the first-ever translation of Quran back in 12th century or earlier.
Preaching in Sindhi
At about the same time came the religious writings of Ismaili Khojas (Khwajas) known as “Ginan” (Gnan). They availed of the local language to reach the masses for religious conversion.
Shah Abdul Latif
Shah Abdul Latif (1689-1752) was not only the greatest poet of Sindh, but he was also probably the greatest Sindhi is history. As a poet, he belongs to world-class. His poetry is more valuable than all the other Sindhi literature put together. And he was not only a great poet; he was a great saint, a great nationalist, a great humanist. And at a pinch, he could be humorist, too. The dignity of labour and values of life are the favourite themes of his poetry.
Another immortal poet of Sindh was Abdul Wahab (1739-1829) well known as Sachal Sarmast – the True Intoxicated One. He was a great Persian-Arabic scholar, who wrote much in Persian and then became an intoxicated Sufi thinker poet. Nazria Wahdat-ul-Wajood was his favourite subject.
Makhdum Muhammad Hussain
He was a religious scholar. He wrote about 50 books in Persian and Sindhi. His books were included in the curriculum of Al-Azhar University, Cairo. He also translated the Holy Quran in Sindhi.
Other Sindhi Poets
The important Sindhi writers are:
- Mirza Kalich Beg
- Hakim Fateh Muhammad Khan Sewhani
- Bherumal Merchant
- Lalchand Amardinomal
- Sheikh Ayaz
- Karim Bux Khan Nizamani
- Asadullah Bhutto
Muhammad Bin Qasim Literary Society is rendering good services to the Sindhi language literature by publishing valuable books on social sciences and literary themes as well Sindhi renderings of the important books of other languages. Several institutions working under official patronage have done commendable services by preserving classical Sindhi literary assets in modern forms.
Q6. Write a note on Pushto language, literature and poetry.
Pushto or Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. The people who speak Pushto are called Pakhtoon or Pushtoon.
Origin of Pushto
Pushto originates itself from eastern Iranian language branch, but it has also borrowed words for over two thousand years, from a language such as Greek, Arabic, Persian and some Indian languages. It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian. Arabic, Greek and Pehlevi words. By the end of the 14th century, the Puhsto language had absorbed more explicit external influences.
Dialects of Pushto
There are three major dialects of Pushto:
- Western Pushto which is spoken in Afghanistan
- Eastern Pushto which is spoken in northeastern Pakistan.
- Southern Pushto spoken is Balochistan.
History of Pushto literature
This language was originated almost 5000 years ago in an era of Afghanistan called ‘Bakht’ or ‘Baakht’. Accordingly, the people who speak this language are called Pakhtoon or Pushtoon. The first written records of Pushto are believed to date from the sixteenth century and consist of an account of Sheikh Mali’s conquest of Swat. In this century, there has been a rapid expansion of writing in journalism and other modern genres, which has forced innovation of the language and the creation of many new words.
Written in a modified Arabic alphabet, Pashtu shows strong Sansicrit influence, some Arabic and Persian loanwords, and numerous archaic Sansicrit features.
Pushto in Afghanistan
Pushto became prominent after the creation of the Afghan state in the 18th century. In 1936, Pushto has declared the national and official language of Afghanistan and instruction in two now compulsory. There are over 9 million speakers of Pushto in Afghanistan.
Pushto in Iran
Pushto is spoken in some of the border provinces of Iran.
Pushto in Pakistan
Pushto is the regional language of Pakistan. It is the language of Pakistani province N.W.F.P.
Pushto literature exists from the 7th century.
The first Pushto poem
The first Pushto poem that has been documented was written in the 7th century by Amir Karore.
The national poet of Afghanistan
The national poet of Afghanistan, Khushhal Khan (1613-94), chief to the Khatak clan, wrote spontaneous and forceful poetry of great charm. He also wrote books on medicine, philosophy and ethics. The expansion in writing in several genres this century has meant that the language has been forced to innovate, and several new words have been created.
Mystical poetry in Pushto
Popular mystical poetry was ‘Abd ar-Rahman and ‘Abd al-Hamid, in the late 17th or early 18th century and Ahmad Shah Durrani founder of the modern Afghan nation, was himself a poet. The Pushto Academy publishes a variety of literary works.
Classical Pushto poetry
Pushto has an extensive written tradition. There is a number of classical Pushtoon poets, most notably Khoshhal Khan Khatak.
Modern Pushto literature
Modern Puhstoon written literature has adapted those modern western literary forms, like the short story, that match forms from traditional Pushto oral literature. Puhstoon folk literature is the most extensively developed in the region.
Folk Poems in Pushto
Besides stories set to music, Pushtoon has thousands of two- and four-line folk poems, traditionally composed by women. These reflect the day-to-day like and views of Pushtoon women.
Famous Pushto Poets
Some of the wells known poets of Pushto language are:
- Amir Karore
- Khushhal Khan Khatak
- Rehman Baba
- Mullah Maqsood
- Noor ud-Din
He wrote Pata Khazana, the first book of Pushto poetry in the second half of the 8th century.
Khushhal Khan Khatak
Khushhal Khan Khatak was the greatest poet of Pushto. He was himself a warrior also. He said:
Those moments are memorable for Khushhal when there is the music of swords and iron coverings.
Khushhal Khan Khatak wrote on different aspects of life in his poetry. The important topics of his poetry are Ishq-e-Hakeeki, Ishq-Majazi, war, spirituality, nature, prestige and bravery.
Rehman Baba is also the great poet of Pushto language. He was a Sufi poet and he emphasized spirituality and love. He is a milestone in Pushto poetry.
He wrote folk songs in Pushto language.
Noor-ud-Din also wrote folk poetry like Tappa, Lamki etc
Besides the above mentioned, Sher Shah Suri, Mullah Mast, Ghiasuddin Bulbul and Hafiz Karum are also famous poets of Pushto language.
The Pushto prose started developing in the 20th century. Now because of the media, Pushto prose had developed a lot. Now short stories, novels, play, grammar, essays, and criticism is also composed in Pushto poetry.
Four Phases of Pushto Literature
Pushto literature can be divided into the following four phases.
- First Phase between 8th and 15th century AD
- Second Phase between 16th century to 17th century AD
- Third Phase between 17th and 18th century
- Fourth Phase between 18th century to date
First Phase between 8th and 15th century AD
The important features of this phase are:
|Poets of the First Phase||Literary Works|
|Amir Karore||Patta Khazana|
|Bayzeed Ansari||Various poems|
|Sher Shah Suri||Qasidas|
Second Phase between 16th century to 17th century AD
The important features of this phase are:
|Poets of the second Phase||Literary Works|
|Akhund Dyruza||Various poems|
|Khushhal Khan Khatak||Living Pushto legends|
|Rehman Baba||Living Pushto legends|
Third Phase between 17th and 18th century
The important features of this phase are:
|Poets of the third Phase||Literary Works|
|Sa’dat Khan||Many poems|
|Qasim Ali Afridi||Many poems|
Fourth Phase between 18th century to date
Pushto literature in this age is dominated by anti-imperialistic themes. Sentiments of love and expression of discontentment and revolt against the oppressive foreign rule are the hallmark of the literature composed in this age. During the Indo-Pak war 1965; Pushto poets and writers produced effective national literature especially poetry. The important writers and poets of this age are:
- Muhammad Akram Khadim
- Abdul Kabeer Khan
- Fazal Rahim Saqi
- Muhammad Aslam Khan Sharar
- Dost Muhammad Kamil
- Muhammad Nawaz Khan Kamil
- Abdul Malik Fida
Forms of Pushto poetry
Following are the forms of Pushto poetry:
- Char baitay
Being our regional language, Pushto language is a mark of our culture. It is a mirror to Pushto lifestyle, Pushto way of thinking. So it is a medium of bringing people together.
Q7. Write a note on Balochi poetry.
Balochi is the regional language of Balochistan. It is the least developed of all the regional languages. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran.
Dialects of Balochi
There are two main dialects:
- Eastern and
- Rakhshani and
Balochi as a language
Balochi is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, India, the Arab Gulf States, Turkmenistan and East Africa. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family which includes Kurdish, Persian (Farsi), Pushto, Dari, Tajik, Ossetian. Balochi is closely related to Kurdish and Persian.
The status of Balochi in Pakistan
The Constitution of Pakistan (1973), states that “any section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture shall have the right to preserve and promote the same and, subject to law, establish institutions for that purpose”. And “a Provincial Assembly may by law prescribe measures for the teaching, promotion and use of a provincial language in addition to the national language.” This section of the law allows Balochi language to prosper in Pakistan without any hindrance.
Balochi at the school level
In 1989, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto permitted the use of local languages (Balochi, Pushto, Brahui) in primary education in Balochistan.
Balochi at University level
There is a Balochi section at the Balochi University in Quetta which teaches and researches the Balochi language and literature.
Also, there is a Balochi Academy, also located in Quetta, which both publishes literary works in Balochi and supports the work of literary organizations. The Academy receives limited government funding.
There are several Balochi language publications in Pakistan, the two most prominent being Balochi (published in the provincial capital, Quetta) and Labzank (published in Karachi)
There are three branches of Balochi lyrical poetry.
|Form of Poetry||Detail|
|Epic||This kind of poetry is about the historical pedigree and the lineage of Balochi tribes.|
|Narrative of Wars||This kind of poetry tells about wars. It also includes praise of the heroes (Qasidas) and condemnation of the enemy (hajve)|
|Elegies||These are the long narrative poems about dead horses.|
|Romantic Poems||Romantic poetry includes lyrics, ghazals, ethical poems, luuaby, Dastangh, matak and folk poetry.|
Epic writing is the most important branch of Balochi poetry. The themes of patriotic poetry include courage, grandeur, honour, patience and bravery.
Narrative of Wars
This kind of poetry tells about wars. It also includes praise of the heroes (Qasidas) and condemnation of the enemy (hajve). This poetry tells about the bravery of the Balochi nation.
These are the long narrative poems about dead horses. This kind of poetry tells about the sacrifices made by the Balochi is to rise as a nation.
The other important branch of Balochi poetry is love poetry. It includes the themes of love and passion. Romantic poetry includes lyrics, ghazals, ethical poems, lullaby, motak and folk poetry. The stories of Lori and Motak present a reflection of social life in ancient times.
Important Balochi Poets
Balochi Classical Prose
The stories of Classical Balochi prose are:
- Mir Chalkkar Khan
- Hassan Zindu
- Hammal Rand-o-Minhaad
- Murred Dhani
These stories are very popular in classical prose of Balochi literature.
The golden period of Balochi literature
The Balochi poetry is written in the reign of English included topics of spirituality, morals and hatred against the British. A popular poet of this era in Mast Tolki.
The first radio of broadcasts in Balochi
Broadcasts in Balochi were introduced on 25th December 1949 by Radio Pakistan with a 45-minute daily Programme on a 10-kilowatt short wave transmitter from its Karachi station, which was also established soon after Pakistan gained its independence in 1947.
Literary produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940. After partition, however, Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and by the establishment of TV stations. At present, Balochi literature is on the road to development.