Table of Contents
Q1. Give the area and location of Pakistan.
The full name of Pakistan is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
It covers an area of 796,096 Square kilometers.
Pakistan is located in the south of the Continent of Asia. It is a country having fertile land, loft plains, rivers and beautiful valleys.
Q2. Identify the importance of the location of Pakistan.
Ans: Pakistan is a vast country which, in the south, stretches from the coasts of the Arabian Sea and Deltaic Plains of the River Indus to the high mountain ranges in the north.
The eastern and southern part is covered with the river plains whereas western and northern part consists of many high mountain ranges.
Based on temperature, there are such areas in Pakistan, where it remains either hot or cold throughout the year. That’s why the climate of Pakistan exhibits considerable seasonal variations.
The plains here are famous for their fertility and high agricultural production. Almost all types of fruits are grown here which are considered among the best in the world concerning taste.
Pakistan is fortunate because Allah has blessed it with an ideal physical environment. The physical environment has significant effects on the economic, social culture and other activities of the people living there. The physical environment comprises location, relief features and climate etc.
Q3. Give an account of Physical Features of Pakistan.
Ans: Physical Features of Pakistan:
Pakistan is divided into three major parts concerning Physical Features:
- Mountain Ranges
Q4. Write a short note on the Rain-fall Condition in Pakistan.
Ans: Rain-fall Condition in Pakistan:
In Pakistan, there are two rainy seasons.
- Monsoon rains in Summer
- Winter Rain
- Monsoon Rains in Summer:
An average of 50 inches rain is experienced annually in Muree, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Sialkot between July and September because of monsoon winds of summer.
Towards the south, it decreases gradually. The southern plain area includes the areas of South Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan receive less than 10 inches of rain annually. Due to it, deserts are found in these areas. It does not rain on Balochistan. Plateau and north-west mountains during summer. Due to it, these are dry mountain ranges.
- Winter Rain:
It rains in the northern plains during winter because of western winds. But it’s too less to meet our needs. Because of low rainfall in southern areas, farmers and other people have to face a lot of problems. To meet the requirements of water, it is utmost necessary to construct dams and canals so that agriculture may be developed.
Q5. Elaborate how does climate affect human life?
Ans: The Effects of Climate on Human Life:
Climate affects human life deeply. All the human activities are affected by climate. All the economic, social, cultural, political and commercial activities, most of the people living in any country, depend mostly to a great extent upon the climate.
Effects of Climate in Plain Areas:
There is intensity in a climate of the plain areas of Pakistan. It means that summers are hot and winters are cold. This type of climate is very useful for different kinds of crops, vegetables and fruits. Plain areas are made up by the soil that the rivers bring along with them. That’s why they are very fertile. These are densely populated areas.
Source of Income:
The income of the people living in plain areas depends upon agriculture and the industry associated with agriculture. The economic condition of the inhabitants is comparatively better. They enjoy better economic circumstances. These areas have better facilities for transportation and communication. People enjoy better facilities.
Q6. Describe the climate effects on Northern and North-Western areas of Pakistan.
Ans: Climate Effects:
The northern and north-western areas of Pakistan are surrounded by mountain ranges. These areas are thousands of meters higher than sea-level. The temperature is lower because of this height in winter, the temperature of mountain areas falls below the freezing point. It shows frequently. All the activities of the people living here are limited during the winter. People store food items and other necessary commodities before the winter sets.
Fruits of various types are produced here. Because of it, economic and commercial activities are revived. Mountain areas are relatively less populated.
Reserves of minerals:
Reserves of minerals are also found in these areas. The people of this area are hardworking and sturdy. Tourism prospers due to picturesque scenes and pleasant climate of these areas.
Q7. Describe the Climate of Desert Areas in Pakistan.
Ans: Climate of Desert Areas:
The climate of desert areas in Pakistan is too hot and dry. There is much difference between day and night temperatures. Heatwaves blow during day-time. Dust storms are also experienced. The southern areas of Punjab and northern, as well as southern areas of Sindh, have especially the characteristics of deserts. The people living here lead hard lives. This area receives very little rainfall. Therefore, people have to fetch water from far off distant places. The life is comparatively comfortable in the areas which have canals as a source of water.
Source of Income:
Rearing of sheep and goats is the major source of earning for the people of these areas.
Q8. Describe the Climate of Balochistan Plateau.
Ans: Climate of Balochistan Plateau:
The climate of Balochistan Plateau is extremely hot during summers and extremely cold during winters. Some areas having high altitude receive snow-fall during winter. This is the driest area of Pakistan. Winter Snow-fall is an important source of the availability of water reservoirs in this area. During summer, water is stored in dales and small rivers. Hence, lakes and seasonal streams are found here.
Use of Kareez:
The rain-water is stored and is carried from one place to another through underground channels called “Kareez”. These underground channels are very important because of the high temperature in Balochistan. Water cannot evaporate from there. These water channels have made farming possible in this area.
Source of Income:
The income of the people living in this area mostly depends upon the rearing of sheep, goats and other cattle. Tins area is rich in producing fruits and mineral resources. The source of living of people depends upon the availability of local resources.
Q9. Write a short note on the Glaciers and Drainage System.
The temperature remains low on the areas having high altitude. Due to this, snow continues to fall there. When snow is accumulated and compressed over many years, the snow below takes the shape of thickened ice masses and begins to move downhill. It is called Glacier.
Abundant snow-fall on our mountains given rise to the gigantic glaciers. They continue melting slowly in summer and keep our rivers and streams flowing throughout the year. They are a source to provide water to our population, agriculture and industry. Our long and unique canal irrigation system owes a great deal to these glaciers.
Name of famous Glaciers:
Siachen, Baltoto, Biafo, Hispar, Rimo and Batura etc are among huge glaciers of Pakistan.
Q10. Describe the significance of major forests.
Ans: Vegetation (Forest):
Due to variations in climatic conditions of Pakistan, the following types of forests are found here:
Forest of North-Western Areas:
Some northern and northwestern areas of Pakistan receive more rain as compared to that of other areas. Evergreen forests are found here. The most important of them are of deodar trees, firs, blue pine and spruce trees (sanobar). High-quality timber-yard is available by these trees. Oak, walnut and chestnut trees are found in abundance.
Important Forest Areas:
Muree, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Chitral, Swat and Dir are places full of forests.
Forest of foot-hill Areas:
In the foot-hill areas of the districts of Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat, Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat, mostly phulahi, Kao, jand, acacia, wild olive and blackberry trees are found.
Forest of Quetta and Kallat Divisions of Balochistan:
In Quetta and Kallat Divisions of Balochistan, besides thorny bushes, there are trees of mazoo, Pine nuts, blackberry and poplar.
Q11. Describe the importance of forests in plain areas.
Ans: Forests in Plain Areas:
There are some forests in plain areas. They consist of Sheesham (The Indian Rosewood Tree), Poplar, mulberry, sumbal, Jamun (Black Plum), dharek and eucalyptus trees. The areas, where these forests are found include Changa Manga, Chicha Watani, Khanewal, Toba Tek Singh, Rakh Ghulaman Thai, Bahawalpur, Tounsa, Sakkur, Kotri and Guddu.
There are forests of Bela along the rivers. Other than these forests, trees can be seen along the National Highways and canals.
Q12. Define Desert.
The area that receives less than 10 inches of rainfall annually is called Desert.
Q13. Describe the significance of Desert in Punjab.
Ans: Desert in Punjab:
The southern east part of Pakistan has desert-like characteristics. It encompasses an enormous area. In Punjab, this region starts from Bahawalnagar and spreads towards Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar Khan. It consists of the districts of Sukkur, Khairpur, Sanghar, Mirpur Khas and Tharparkar in Sindh. This dessert is called Cholistan or Rohi in Punjab.
Q14. Write a note on the desert in Sindh.
Ans: Desert in Sindh:
In Sindh, this desert is known as Thar and Nara. Due to the scarcity of rain-fall, we find desert vegetation here.
Most of the people are associated with the profession of rearing goats, sheep and camels.
Source of Irrigation:
This region receives less rainfall. Hence, water is the major issue of these people. Rainwater is stored in ponds and it is used for drinking purpose. Some areas are irrigated by canals too.
Q15. Briefly describe the second desert of Pakistan.
Ans: The Second Desert of Pakistan:
The second dessert of Pakistan is Thai. It is situated between River Jhelum and River Indus. This dessert consists of the districts of Mianwali, Layyah, Bhakhar, Khushab and Muzaffargarh.
Source of Irrigation:
Some parts of these districts are irrigated by the canals that have been dug out from River Indus. Besides canals, irrigation is done with tube-wells too. In some areas, arid farming can be seen.
Q16. Briefly describe the third desert of Pakistan.
Ans: The third Desert of Pakistan:
The third desert of Pakistan “Kharan” is situated in Balochistan. Some part of district Changhi also includes in this desert. It is mostly without any vegetation because it receives an extremely low amount of rain-fall. It is thinly populated. People have to travel for miles to fetch water.
The people depend mostly upon the rain-fall. People cling to age-old traditions. The literacy rate is almost equal to none. This is one of the most backward and undeveloped areas of Pakistan.
Source of income:
Most of the people rear sheep, goats and camels.
Q17. Describe the importance of Coastal Region of Pakistan.
Ans: Coastal Areas:
Pakistan coastal belt starts from the borders of India in Sindh and stretches towards Iran in the west.
This coastal region has important ports. Karachi is the largest and oldest seaport. The other ports include Port Qasim, Gawadar etc.
The Government has constructed the Coastal Highway to connect Karachi with Gawadar. It is providing very useful for the commercial activities of the area.
It rains mostly in the months of winter on the Makran coast. It is moderate and dry throughout the year. There is much humidity on the coastal areas of Sindh. There is uncertainty about rain. Forests of mangrove are found to the east of the Delta of the River Indus.
There are very important for the fish industry. They also slow down sea-waves. Fishing is the major profession of people.
Q18. Write a note on the following:
Humid Mountain Region
Semi Humid Mountain Region
Ans: (a) Humid Mountain Region:
The humid region of central Himalayas includes Hazara, Mansehra, Abbottabad and Muree. This is the most humid region in Pakistan. It receives rainfall both in summer as well as in winter. Most of the rain is caused by the monsoon winds. It is very pleasant in summer. The average temperature here in June is 26 Centigrade.
(b)Semi Humid Mountain Region:
This region includes the northern and backside parts of Himalayas. This region does not receive much rain. The Valley of Kashmir receives rains most of all other valleys. Most of the rains are receives from February to October. This region includes the following areas.
- Kashmir Valley
- Chitral Valley
- Swat Valley
Q19. Evaluate the significance of Dry and Semi-Dry Mountain Region.
Ans: Dry Mountain Region:
This region includes small hills of Makran and Lasbela, Kallat; desert areas of Chaghi and Kharan; northern areas (Skardu, Chitral, Gilgit etc); Southwestern districts of KPK i.e Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Bannu, Kark and Kohat etc.
They receive less than 12 inches average rainfall annually.
The temperature rises to 47 C in some areas, whereas the winters are extremely cold. This area is devoid of forests due to extreme weather.
Fruit orchards are found in the areas where water is available. Crops are also cultivated in such areas.
Semi-Dry Mountain Region
This region includes the mountain ranges of Kohisstan-e-Namak, Kala Chitta Mountain, Koh-e-Sulaiman and Koh-e-Kirthar.
The average amount of rainfall is from 12 inches to 15 inches annually. The summers are hot and long.
This region is famous for fruits especially almond, apple, pomegranate and apricot. Sugarcane, rice, wheat, maize, gram, groundnut and pulses are major crops of this area.